In this study, ICTs are defined as consisting of the hardware, software, networks, and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information (voice, data, text, images).
Most ICT initiatives examined in this study involved the reporting of water service levels using mobile phone technology. The research design employed in this study is Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). QCA helps to identify a variety of causal patterns (based on the contribution of different conditions) that lead to a specific outcome when comparing a small to medium number of cases.
Through a literature review and online survey, the research team identified a range of ICT initiatives used to monitor and report on water supply sustainability.