Hivos International

Social Movements

It is a well-known fact that extension of universal citizenship rights to all citizens regardless of their socio-economic status, were considered as a feature of the progress of modern societies. This approach is widely contested in 1980s due to the growth of social movements which challenge the traditional form of citizenship. The main theme in these movements were/are differences of gender, ethnicity, and “race”. New social movements have also challenged the idea of same set of rights for all citizens in a single universal citizenship.