The development of China as a global economic power is one of the most dramatic stories of recent decades. China’s economy has been the fastest growing in the world since 1980. Rapid growth has occurred in all sectors, including agriculture, accompanied by rapid poverty reduction. In the past 30 years, based on China’s official poverty line, the absolute level of rural poverty fell from 260 million (36 per cent of rural population) in 1978 to 26.9 million (2.8 per cent of rural population) in 2010 (NSBC, 2011). Moreover, the general welfare of most of the population has increased markedly. Many indicators of nutritional status have improved. In fact, by the middle of 2007, China had achieved many of its Millennium Development Goals.