In recent years there has been an increased interest in applying Theory of Change (ToC) thinking as a way to operate more strategically and effectively in complex change processes. ToC refers to the understanding that an organisation, project, network or group of stakeholders has about how political, social, economic and/or cultural change happens. A ToC analysis in particular explores and specifies how and why this organisation, project or group of stakeholders thinks that their actions will contribute to such a change process. It helps to formulate the assumptions underlying their thinking and strategic choices. In this E-Dialogue, Hivos wishes to explore what potential theory of change approaches have for mainstreaming gender into programming, M&E and learning.